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US Introduces Stringent Export Control Rules on Cutting-Edge AI Chips

  • On Tuesday, Nvidia disclosed in a stock exchange filing that the US has prohibited the sale of its GeForce RTX 4090 PC graphics card to China. This move is part of the US’s broader strategy to prevent China from accessing advanced AI chips.
  • The restriction announcement comes in tandem with the US Commerce Department’s introduction of robust rules designed to obstruct the Chinese government’s attempts to procure advanced chip supplies.
  • Nvidia further clarified that in order to export the RTX 4090 to not just China but also countries like Saudi Arabia, UAE, and Vietnam, it would need a US government license. However, the likelihood of obtaining a license in China appears bleak. The US Commerce Department has meticulously formulated export regulations to prevent sales to China.
  • Interestingly, the RTX 4090, packed with 76 billion transistors, breaches the Commerce Department’s stipulation, which mandates a license for chips with over 50 billion transistors. This implies a potential future where high-end graphics cards might be off-limits for China.
  • Nvidia has two more GPUs, A800 and H800, that now fall under the export ban. Consequently, the firm cautioned that they might have to reconsider operations in some of these restricted countries.

The Impact on the US Chip Industry

  • The newly enforced export control rules have sent shockwaves through the tech industry. Nvidia shares plummeted nearly 8%, and a collective loss of $73 billion in market value was seen among 30 chip stocks including the likes of Intel, AMD, and ASML.
  • In response to the previous US-imposed restrictions, Nvidia unveiled a line of compliant, albeit substandard, AI chips. These, too, now come under the ban’s purview.
  • Despite Nvidia’s reassurances that the new regulations will not critically affect their financial outlook, they did recognize potential setbacks in product development timelines and hinted at a possible operational shift away from China.

China’s Countermove

  • As the US tightens its grip, China accelerates its pursuit of high-grade chip development. An example is Huawei’s recent launch of the Mate 60 Pro smartphone, integrated with a domestically fabricated seven-nanometer chip. This release coincided with US Commerce Secretary Gina Raimondo’s Beijing visit, catching the US off guard.
  • However, even as China demonstrates its capability to produce sophisticated hardware, experts advise caution. China’s chip-making tech is still not on par with global standards, and the nation largely depends on Western technology.
  • Furthermore, China has aggressively ramped up imports of Western chip-making equipment, anticipating tighter controls from countries like the Netherlands and Japan. Simultaneously, China is channeling close to $150 billion into subsidies aimed at bolstering its domestic chip manufacturers.

Challenges for the US

  • Implementing these export controls is fraught with complexities. Effective enforcement requires substantial resources, and the US Congress seems poised to reject augmented budgetary demands from the Bureau of Industry and Security.
  • Ensuring the global efficacy of these export restrictions requires cooperation from European and Asian allies, a tall order given varying national interests. While countries like the Netherlands and Japan have shown support, the annual refresh of US controls might spark tensions.
  • Concessions have already been made: South Korean chipmakers have been granted indefinite leeway to continue China sales, and similar provisions are expected for Taiwan’s TSMC.
  • The European Union, with its 27 member states each running distinct export control regimes, presents another obstacle.

Future Implications for Global Tech Dynamics

  • The unfolding scenario paints a picture of an escalating tech cold war. As nations dig in their heels and protect their technological advancements, the spirit of global collaboration that has driven tech innovation for decades might be at risk.
  • China, undeterred by these export bans, is likely to intensify its research and development endeavors, aiming to become self-reliant in core tech sectors. This could lead to a bifurcation in technology standards, with the West and China potentially promoting divergent tech ecosystems.

Prospects for Global Supply Chains

  • Global supply chains, which are intricately intertwined, stand to be disrupted. Companies that once sourced components freely from across the globe might now face significant bottlenecks, potentially leading to delays in product releases and increased costs for consumers.
  • Manufacturers, in anticipation of such disruptions, could consider reshoring or diversifying their supply chains, resulting in a shift from the cost-efficient globalization model to a more resilience-focused approach.


Advocates of these stringent US export controls believe that they will impede China’s tech advances and levy unmanageable costs on Beijing. Yet, there are concerns about corruption, inefficiency, and economic sustainability linked with China’s approach. Furthermore, as these export controls intensify, costs are bound to surge for Chinese firms and the Western tech industry alike. The ongoing tussle to regulate Chinese tech promises a challenging journey ahead, with both economic and geopolitical implications at stake.